The Renewable Fuels Association reported 209 ethanol distilleries in operation located in 29 states in 2011, and 140 under construction or expansion as of December 2011, that upon completion, would bring U. total installed capacity to 15.0 billion US gallons. roads could run on blends of up to 10% ethanol(E10), and manufacturers had begun producing vehicles designed for much higher percentages. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) granted a waiver to allow up to 15% of ethanol blended with gasoline (E15) to be sold only for cars and light pickup trucks with a model year of 2001 or later.Most expansion projects are aimed to update the refinery's technology to improve ethanol production, energy efficiency, and the quality of the livestock feed they produce. Flexible-fuel cars, trucks, and minivans use gasoline/ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol (E85). The EPA waiver authorizes, but does not require stations to offer E15.But critics say the measure will do little or nothing to help downstate economies and will burden ratepayers with higher bills. “This does not help Illinois coal because those plants all burn western coal,” Lundy added.He noted that Illinois generates 41 percent more electricity than the state needs, so statewide supports for power plants are essentially subsidizing rates for customers in other states.These tax changes were ultimately dropped after opposition in the Senate, and the final bill focused on automobile fuel economy, development of biofuels, and energy efficiency in public buildings and lighting.Title I contains the first increase in fuel economy standards for passenger cars since 1975, and the establishment of the first efficiency standard for medium-duty and heavy-duty commercial vehicles.
In recent years, the agricultural sector has been challenged to provide not just food, feed, and fiber to U. and world consumers, but also to meet a larger share of our nation's transportation fuel needs.
By early 2013 there were around 11 million E85-capable vehicles on U. Like the limitations suffered by sales of E85, commercialization of E15 is constrained by the lack of infrastructure as most fuel stations do not have enough pumps to offer the new E15 blend, few existing pumps are certified to dispense E15, and no dedicated tanks are readily available to store E15.
Ethanol production was expected to continue to grow over the next several years, since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 required 36 billion US gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022.
Ethanol made primarily from corn has been used as an additive to meet oxygenate standards designed to improve air quality, but recent legislation has called for renewable biofuels to supplant the use of fossil fuels, reduce dependence on petroleum imports, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.
The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates an increase in biofuels use, from 9.0 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons in 2022, which would equate to one-fifth of current U. gasoline and diesel consumption, and far higher than the 1.6 billion gallons of biofuels produced in 2000.
The target for ethanol production from cellulosic feedstocks was 16 billion US gallons a year.